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Stage 1: Getting to a topic
First rule: get the help of peers and your supervisor to clarify your topic
A research question doesn't have to be a question. It can also be a statement, a proposition or a hypothesis.
||Research proposition / hypothesis
|Are military social workers employed in the Military Health Units in the Western Cape homophobic and/or hetero-sexist?
||Military social workers employed in the Military Health Units in the Western Cape are homophobic and/or hetero-sexist.
||The homophobic and/or hetero-sexist nature of the military is reflected in the attitudes of military social workers employed in the Military Health Units in the Western Cape.
Stage 2: Proposal stage
A research proposal is a working document that acts as a blueprint.
The format is dependent on the intention of your paper but the following elements need to be in a research proposal:
- Descriptive title (can be a working title)
- Reasons for choosing the subject: indicate the reasons (academic / practical / other) for undertaking the research
- Outline of the problem / thesis: make your claim upfront - can be stated as a problem / proposition. Then outline the problems and questions that you will be examining to support your claim. Show how they are linked and how they sustain your proposition (this is about validating your argument).
- Major sources: refer to the major sources you will be using. Indicate all sources that you will rely on to validate your argument. Make sure you have located the major works in the field and expressed your views on them.
- Method: Discuss how you will be collecting data to investigate your question. For example, if you are doing surveys or questionnaires, you will then include a method discussion.
- Comparative studies: If relevant, indicate which studies you will compare with and why it is relevant, including the extent of comparison.
- Structure: Give a rough outline of the divisions / sections in your paper and describe briefly what each section will deal with.
- Provisional / Running bibliography: this must be included and be kept up to date.
Format of the proposal:
The research proposal only needs to be 1-2 pages (between 500-1000 words) and should address the following questions:
The WHY - why this research: public interest, personal reasons
The WHAT - the specifics of the paper: problem statement including goals and purpose
The HOW - research methodology
Stage 4: Elements of a 'good' scholarly paper
The following are typically present in a good scholarly paper:
- A 'golden thread' - an overall line of argument - running through the paper, holding it together
- 'Sign-posts' - crisp titles, sub-titles and headings that identify the direction being followed
- 'Authority' - good engagement with existing literature and a comprehensive bibliography - the bibliography is the window to the paper and its author
Things to avoid:
- Avoid long quotations - rather paraphrase or break up the quote with your own commentary
- Avoid sloppy and inaccurate presentation and ensure that your references are correct
Stage 3: Writing the scholarly paper
Three phases are involved in writing an academic paper:
|Phase 1: Pre-writing
Writing for yourself and exploring concepts / experimenting with ideas.
Be creative - freewrite; keep a research and reading journal - recording articles that you read and your thoughts, 'notes to self', etc
Construct a mindmap or 'table of contents'
|Phase 2: Drafting and re-writing / revising
Start expanding on your ideas - start to write for others
Develop your thread, argument, coherence of structure and ask:
- How will the reader receive this?
- Do I have enough authority for the claims I make?
|Phase 3: Editing
Polishing stage - grammar and punctuation and 'elegance' of writing style
Check also the correctness of references
Stage 5: Choosing a title for your paper
Your title should contain the following functions:
- conveying the content of your paper
- catching the readers' attention
- differentiating your paper from similar papers
They should be brief and descriptive and indicate the following:
- what the paper is about
- any methods / techniques used
- who or what was studied
- the nature of the results