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Psychology Library Guide: Referencing and the APA Style

Referencing and the APA Style

Referencing and the APA style

PsycINFO has a brief guide to APA style on its help pages as well as links to the APA's own guide. Here is the text of the PsycInfo guide:

APA Style

The main scholarly association for academic psychologists in the United States, the American Psychological Association (APA) has developed standardized methods for citing print and electronic sources used in research. Below are instructions according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/.

Instructions

Alphabetize each entry in a works cited list by the first letter, ignoring the articles A, An, and The. Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch.

Names: Use initials for first and middle names.

Titles: For articles, chapters and books, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns. Fully capitalize periodical titles.

Dates: Publication dates use the order year, month day. The access date uses the order month day year. If no publication date is available, use "n.d." in place of date.

The following examples are citations from EBSCO databases. If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available. Different styles may apply when citing print and other sources.

Journal Article

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of article]. [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier]

Example:

Silva, L. (2007). Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 165-183. [Document Object Identifier]

Journal Article w/ No Author

Pattern:

[Title of article]. ([Publication year]). [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier]

Example:

Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. (2007). Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 165-183. [Document Object Identifier]

Online Magazine Article

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. ([Year], [Month]). [Article Title] [Title of magazine], [Volume number] ([Issue Number]).

Example:

Wood, L. (2007, February). Curiously strong teamwork. Business Week, 4023.

Magazine Article w/ No Author

Pattern:

[Title of article]. ([Year], [Month]). [Title of magazine], [Volume number] ([Issue Number]).

Example:

Curiously strong teamwork. (2007, February). Business Week, 4023, 90-92.

Online Newspaper Article

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year], [Month] [Day]). [Title of article]. [Title of newspaper].

Example:

Bodipo-Memba, A. (2007, February 21). AT&T, GM agrees to $1-billion telecommunications pact. Detroit Free Press.

Online Newspaper Article w/ No Author

Pattern:

[Title of article]. ([Year], [Month] [Day])] [Title of newspaper].

Example:

AT&T, GM agrees to $1-billion telecommunications pact. (2007, February 21). Detroit Free Press.

Book

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of work]. [Location]: [Publisher].

Example:

Melkman, A. (2006). Strategic customer planning. London, UK: Thorogood.

Online Book Chapter

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of chapter]. In, [Title of book] (pp. [Page number starts]-[ends]). [Location]: [Publisher].

Example:

Melkman, A. (2006). Introduction, summary and how to get the most out of this book. In, Strategic customer planning (pp. 1-18). London, UK: Thorogood.

ERIC Document

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. [Publication year]. [Title of Document]([Document or Report number]). [Place of Publication]: [Publishing Agency Name] (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. [ED# or EJ#]).

Example:

Naples, N. A. (2000). Economic restructuring and racialization: Incorporation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans in the rural midwest. Working Paper. (Report WP-7). California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED466345).

Image

Pattern:

[Title of image]. ([Date of creation]).

Example:

Bush meets Italian president in Rome. (2005).

Video / Audio

Pattern:

[Title of video / audio]. ([Date of creation]).

Example:

Presidential and Vice Presidential debates - 1988. (1988).

Podcast

Pattern:

[Producer last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. (Producer) & [Presenter last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. (Presenter). ([Publication Year], [Month] [Day]). [Title of Podcast] [Type of podcast]. [Country of publication]: [Distributor].

Example:

Alper, B. (Producer) & Hayden, E. (Presenter). (2007, March 6). Prevention of HIV infection. Treatment of COPD. [DynaMed Podcast Program]. Ipswich, Massachusetts: EBSCO Publishing.

Conference Paper

Pattern:

[Author]. ([Year],). [Title of paper]. In Editor ([First initial, Last name]) (Ed.) [Title of conference proceedings] ([page numbers]). [Place of publication]: [Publisher]. [doi:xxx.xxxxxxx]

Example:

Kohout, J., Finno, A., & Hart, B. (2010). In Editor E. Fromm (Ed.) Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association (10-24). Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association, Center for Workforce Studies.

Electronic books

Pattern:

[Author Last Name]’ [Author first name initials]. ([Date]). [Book Title] Retrieved from [URL]

Example:

Seaward, B. L. (1999). Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. Retrieved from www.netlibrary.com

Electronic Book-Chapter

Pattern:

[Author Last Name]’ [Author first name initials]. ([Date]). [Title of Chapter] In [Book Title] (Chapter or Section number) Retrieved from [URL]

Example:

Seaward, B. L. (1999). “Managing Stress.” In Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. (Chapter 1) Retrieved from www.netlibrary.com

Website

Pattern:

[Author Last Name], [Author First Name Initial]. ([Date of publication[). [Title of document]. Retrieved from [http://Web address]

Example:

IBM. (n.d.). Green electronics: designing for a smarter planet. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/green_and_sustainability/article/green_electroni cs.html?re=ussph1.1

These are only basic examples of the APA style. More detailed information is available through the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/. In addition, a variety of third-party style guides and web sites can provide further assistance.


 

APA Manual Shelf Number

Main Library shelf numbers:  (open shelves) 808.06615 PUBL and (reference section) R 808.06615 PUBL

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.

6th ed. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2010.

xviii, 272 p. : ill. ; 26 cm. 

Includes bibliographical references (p. 255-257) and index.

From the Publisher:

With millions of copies sold, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines in which effective communication with words and data is fundamental.In addition to providing clear guidance on grammar, the mechanics of writing, and APA style, the  Publication Manual offers an authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system and comprehensive coverage of the treatment of numbers, metrication, statistical and mathematical data, tables, and figures for use in writing, reports, or presentations. The new edition has been revised and updated to include:The latest guidelines and examples for referencing electronic and online sources; New and revised guidelines for submitting papers electronically; Improved guidelines for avoiding plagiarism; Simplified formatting guidelines for writers using up-to-date word-processing software; All new guidelines for presenting case studies; Improved guidelines for the construction of tables; Updates on copyright and permissions issues for writers. New reference examples for audiovisual media and patents; An expanded and improved index for quick and easy access; Writers, scholars, and professionals will also find: New guidelines on how to choose text, tables, or figures to present data; Guidelines for writing cover letters for submitting articles for publication, plus a sample letter; Expanded guidelines on the retention of raw data; New advice on establishing written agreements for the use of shared data; New information on the responsibilities of co-authors.