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NISH (NITAG Support Hub) 4 - HPV OR Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: Home

This Library Guide is a collection of useful documents & evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness and impact of the HPV OR Papillomavirus vaccine to support NITAG members and other policy makers throughout Africa with making evidence-based recommendations

Library Guides

LibGuides are a content management and information sharing system designed specifically for users of library materials. The platform allows for easy navigation through core and relevant resources in a particular subject field, class, or assignment - in our case

Useful documents & evidence on the HPV OR Papillomavirus vaccine 

HPV Image

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) | The Well Project

HPV OR Human Papillomavirus infection

HPV is a sexually transmitted infection. HPV stands for human papillomavirus. It’s very common. Many people don't have any symptoms, and the infection might go away on its own. But some types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, or cancer of the anus or penis.

HPV isn’t just one virus. There are more than 100 kinds, and some are riskier than others.

Types of HPV

Each human papillomavirus has its own number or type. The term "papilloma" refers to a kind of wart that results from some HPV types.

HPV lives in thin, flat cells called epithelial cells. These are found on the skin's surface. They’re also found on the surface of the vagina, anus, vulva, cervix and head of the penis. They’re also found inside the mouth and throat.

About 60 of the 100 HPV types cause warts on areas like the hands or feet. The other 40 or so enter the body during sexual contact. They’re drawn to the body's mucous membranes, such as the moist layers around the anus and genitals.

Not all of the 40 sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses cause serious health problems.


High-risk HPV strains include HPV 16 and 18, which cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Other high-risk human papillomaviruses include 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and a few others.

Low-risk HPV strains, such as HPV 6 and 11, cause about 90% of genital warts, which rarely develop into cancer. These growths can look like bumps. Sometimes, they’re shaped like cauliflower. The warts can show up weeks or months after you’ve had sex with an infected partner.

WHO publications on HPV