Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Youth: Government Resources: Library Guide: Employment & unemployment

A guide to sources of government and international governmental organisations on youth issues.

Tax incentive

Ebrahim, Amina, Murray Leibbrandt, and Vimal Ranchhod. The effects of the Employment Tax Incentive on South African employment. Helsinki, Finland: United Nations University, January 2017. (WIDER Working Paper 2017/5)

National Economic Development and Labour Council. PFMPC research report on the impact of Employment Tax Incentive Act, 02 December 2016.

National Treasury. Employment tax incentive descriptive report , August 2016.

National Treasury. Media statement: release of a descriptive report detailing the progress of the Employment Tax Incentive, 26 August 2016

South Africa. Employment Tax Incentive Act 26 of 2013

South Africa. Department of Trade and Industry. The Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Codes of Good Practice.  Amended Code Series 000, Statement 000. Practice note 1 of 2018, Youth Employment Service Initiative.

South Africa. Parliament. Standing Committee on Finance. Employment Tax Incentive: National Treasury response to public comments, 22 October 2013.

South Africa. Parliament. Standing Committee on Finance (SCOF): Report-Back Hearings 22 October 2013: Draft Employment Tax Incentive Bill: Response Document from National Treasury as presented to SCOF.

South Africa Revenue Service. Employment Tax Incentive (ETI)

South African Revenue Service. Guide to the Employment Tax Incentive (Issue 2). 2018.

South African Revenue Service. Employment Tax Incentive Scheme, 2014/12/09 (presentation)

South African Revenue Service. How does the Employment Tax Incentive (ETI) work.

Passage of the Employment Tax Incentive Bill  (B46-2013) through Parliament.

National Treasury. Media statement: Cabinet approves publication of Draft Employment Tax Incentive Bill for public comment, 20 September 2013

Draft Employment Tax Incentive Bill

Explanatory memorandum on the Draft Employment Tax Incentive Bill, 2013

Frequently asked questions: Draft Employment Tax Incentive Bill

Policy briefs

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. South Africa policy brief, July 2015, Employment: tackling high youth unemployment. Paris: OECD, 2015.

Book chapters

Cross, Catherine and Stewart Ngandu. Youth unemployment dynamics in the labour market of the periphery, pages 198-222 In: State of the nation :   South Africa, 1994-2014 : a twenty-year review of freedom and democracy.    Cape Town :   HSRC Press,   2014. G 68 E.HSRC.14.STAT


Meyer, Tamlynne and Angelique Wildschut. Artisan training could assist youth employment In: HSRC review, Vol. 14, no. 2 (april-June 2016), pages 29-31. G 68 K.HSRC

Policies and strategies

South Africa. National Treasury.   Confronting Youth Unemployment : Policy Options for South Africa : Discussion Paper . Pretoria: National Treasury, 2011. Shelf no. G 68 E.TREA.11.CONF

South Africa. Department of Trade and Industry. Youth enterprise development strategy, 2013-2023. Pretoria: Department of Trade and Industry, 2013.

South Africa. Department of Economic Development.    New growth path :   accord 6 : youth employment accord /    Pretoria :   Department of Economic Development,   [2013]. G 68 E.ECON.13.NEWG

South Africa. Department of Trade and Industry    The national youth economic empowerment strategy and implementation framework :   mainstreaming youth in the South African economy, 2009 - 2019 /    Pretoria :   Department of Trade and Industry,   2009. G 68 E.INDU.09.NATI

Towards a youth employment strategy for South Africa /    Halfway House, South Africa :   Development Planning Division, Development Bank of Southern Africa,   2011. G 68 E.DBSA.11.TOWA

Delivery agreements

South Africa. Department of Higher Education and TrainingDelivery agreement 5: a skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive growth path.

Delivery agreement for outcome 4 :   decent employment through inclusive growth.    [Pretoria :   Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation],   2010. G 68 E.ECON.10.DELI

Conference reports

Report of the Youth Employment Summit :   decent youth employment /    Johannesburg :   South African Youth Council,   2012.G 68 E.LABO.12.REPO

Youth and Women in Construction and Property Summit 2015. Pietermaritzburg]: Department of Public Works, 2015. Shelf no. G PKN E.WORK.15.YOUT

Youth employment strategies for South Africa, Roundtable held on 9 June 2011 :   development conversations /    Halfway House, South Africa :   Development Bank of Southern Africa,   2011. G 68 E.DBSA.11.YOUT


Youth service

Free State (South Africa). Department of Public Works and Infrastructure. Chief Directorate: Research Monitoring and Evaluation. National youth service in the Free State Province. 2017-2018. 

South Africa. Department of Human Settlements. Framework for the Participation and Empowerment of Youth in Human Settlements: National Youth Service Programme in Human Settlements. Pretoria: Department of Human Settlements, 2009?

South Africa. National Youth Commission. National youth service policy framework : as approved by Cabinet - 2003 ; National youth service implementation plan developed by National Youth Commission. --    Pretoria, South Africa : National Youth Commission, 2003.   Shelf no. G 68 E.PRES.03.NATI

South Africa. National Youth Commission. Green paper on national youth service. National Youth Commission in the Office of the Deputy President. --    [Pretoria : The Commission], 1998. Shelf no. G 68 E.PRES.98.GREE 


Chapter 6, Youth in the labour market In: Labour market dynamics in South Africa, 2014, 2015, 2016Pretoria :   Statistics South Africa, 2015. See also statistical appendices.

Employment chapter in South Africa survey. Access via Library Databases to South African Institute of Race Relations. See tables of Employment by race and age, and, Unemployment numbers and rates by age, race, and sex. 

International Labour Organization & UNICEF. YouthStats database.

International Labour Organisation. ILOStat

National and provincial labour market :   youth, Q1: 2008–Q1: 2015.   Pretoria :   Statistics South Africa,   2015. G 68 A.LABO.YOUT

National and provincial labour market :   youth, Q1: 2008–Q1: 2014.   Pretoria :   Statistics South Africa,   2014. G 68 A.LABO.YOUT

Quarterly labour force survey  Pretoria :   Statistics South Africa,  2008 onwards.  G 68 A.LABO.FORC

Statistics South Africa, issuing body. Chapter 5, Youth labour market participation In: Vulnerable Groups Series I: The Social Profile of the Youth, 2009‐2014Pretoria, South Africa :   Statistics South Africa,   2016.


Altman, M. Youth labour market challenges in South Africa. Pretoria : HSRC, 2007.

Bhorat, Haroon, Adaiah Lilenstein, Kezia Lilenstein and Morné Oosthuizen. Youth Transitions from Higher Education into the Labour Market. Pretoria: Labour Market Intelligence Partnership, 2017. (LIMP report 36)

Marock, C. Grappling with youth employabiity in South Africa. Pretoria : HSRC, 2008.

Mpumalanga. Provincial Treasury. Analysis of youth unemployment in Mpumalanga, 2008-2015.

Ramadiro, Brian.    Research report :   youth participation in co-operatives in South Africa /    [S.l.] :   Umsobomvu Youth Fund ,   2003. G 68 E.INDU.03.RESE

South Africa. National Planning Commission. Youth labour market transitions report. Pretoria: National Planning Commission, 2017.

Umsobomvu Youth Fund. Economic Sector Youth Job Prospects Analysis Report  2007?



Kew, Penny [et al]. South Africa SME Observatory: the state of youth entrepreneurship in the Free State: a baseline study of entrepreneurial intentions and activity amongst young men and women. Free State Department of Economic Development, Tourism and Environmental Affairs, International Labour Organization, 2013.