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NISH (NITAG Support Hub) 2: Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy/confidence in Africa

This Library Guide contains published and unpublished information on vaccine hesitancy and related issues in the context of COVID-19 vaccination in Subsaharan Africa

Pubmed : Covid-19 AND "vaccination hesitancy" AND Nigeria

Oyeyemi, S.O., Fagbemi, S., Busari, I.I. and Wynn, R., 2023. Belief in COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories, Level of Trust in Government Information, and Willingness to Take COVID-19 Vaccines Among Health Care Workers in Nigeria: Survey Study. JMIR Formative Research7, p.e41925.
Bakare, A.A., Olojede, O.E., King, C., Graham, H., Uchendu, O., Colbourn, T., Falade, A.G. and Alvesson, H.M., 2023. Care seeking for under-five children and vaccine perceptions during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos State, Nigeria: a qualitative exploratory study. BMJ open13(3), p.e069294.
Iwuagwu, A.O., Rayner, D., Ngwu, C.N. and Kalu, M.E., 2023. Why I Have Not Taken the COVID-19 Vaccine” a Descriptive Qualitative Study of Older Adults’ Perceived Views of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake in Nigeria. Journal of population ageing, pp.1-21.
Osibogun, A.O., Shuaib, F.M., Adeyeye, C.M., Onajole, A.T., Ejembi, C.L., Banwat, M.E., Wright, K.O., Mohammed, A., Adeleye, O.A., Yahya, S.J. and Ifeadike, C.O., 2023. Cohort event monitoring for safety signal detection in adult individuals 18 years and above after immunisation with coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines in Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J, pp.18-24.
Agujiobi-Odoh, N., Joseph, I.V., Blessing, C.O., Amaechi, C., Muoh, O., Nwokolo, P. and Celestine, G.V., 2023. Rethinking the frontiers of vaccine acceptance: Impact of visual messages in promoting the actual intake of COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable populations. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, p.2163811.
Oyekale, A.S., 2023. Effect of Health Insurance Uptake on Hesitancy toward COVID-19 Vaccines in Nigeria: A Recursive Bivariate Probit and Decomposition Estimation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health20(3), p.2566.
Adewoye, K.R., Olalubi, O.A., Aremu, S.K., Alao, T.A., Ekpo, D.S., Ipinnimo, T.M., Adeniyi, M.A., Ibrahim, A.O., Sanni, T.A., Achebe, C.C. and Bakare, A., 2023. Perception and willingness to the uptake of covid-19 vaccine among household-heads in a rural community of south-western Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Diseases17(2), pp.1-8. (Not OA)
Ozoh, O.B., Akinkugbe, A.O., Olukoya, M.A. and Adetifa, I.M., 2023. Enablers and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria: informing vaccine engagement strategies for the marginalized. International Health, p.ihad009.
Babatope, T., Ilyenkova, V. and Marais, D., 2023. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: a systematic review of barriers to the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine among adults in Nigeria. Bulletin of the National Research Centre47(1), p.45.
Sulaiman, S.K., Musa, M.S., Tsiga-Ahmed, F.I.I., Dayyab, F.M., Sulaiman, A.K., Dabo, B., Ahmad, S.I., Haruna, S.A., Zubair, A.A., Hussein, A. and Usman, S., 2023. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among people living with HIV in a low-resource setting: A multi-center study of prevalence, correlates and reasons. Vaccine41(15), pp.2476-2484. (Not OA)
Aseneh, J.B., Agbor, V.N., Kadia, B., Okolie, E.A., Ofomata, C.J., Etombi, C.L., Ekaney, D.S.M. and Fru, Y.W.J., 2023. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Cameroon and Nigeria: a web-based cross-sectional study. International Health, p.eihad013. (Not OA)
Olaoye, I., Ekong, A., Samuel, A., Kelaiditi, E., Myrissa, K., Jacdonmi, T. and Gboyega, F., 2023. Public beliefs and willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccines among adults in South-Western Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. AIMS Public Health10(1), p.1.
Olawa, B., Lawal, A., Odoh, I., Azikiwe, J., Olawole, A., Odusina, E., Ayodele, I. and Ajayi, O., 2023. Mistrust in government and COVID-19 vaccination acceptance in Nigeria: investigating the indirect roles of attitudes towards vaccination. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association98(1), p.1.
Evans, W.D., Bingenheimer, J.B., Long, M., Ndiaye, K., Donati, D., Rao, N.M., Akaba, S. and Hoglin, B., 2023. Development and Evaluation of an Index to Measure the Ability to Get Vaccinated for COVID-19. Vaccines11(2), p.342.
Ojewale, L.Y. and Mukumbang, F.C., 2023. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Nigerians living with non-communicable diseases: a qualitative study. BMJ open13(2), p.e065901.
Sato, R., 2023. Vaccine hesitancy against COVID-19 vaccine over time in Nigeria. Vaccine41(17), pp.2749-2753. (Not OA)
Akinsunmade, O.M., Ogunyemi, A.O., Isikekpei, B.C., Maduafokwa, B.A., Otokpa, E. and Okerinde, S.S., 2023. Perceptions and Uptake of COVID-19 Vaccines amongst Undergraduate Students in a Tertiary Institution in Lagos State. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal30(2), pp.104-109.
Adewoye, K.R., Olalubi, O.A., Aremu, S.K., Alao, T.A., Ekpo, D.S., Ipinnimo, T.M., Adeniyi, M.A., Ibrahim, A.O., Sanni, T.A., Achebe, C.C. and Bakare, A., 2023. Perception and willingness to the uptake of covid-19 vaccine among household-heads in a rural community of south-western Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Diseases17(2), pp.1-8.
Lazarus, J.V., Wyka, K., White, T.M., Picchio, C.A., Gostin, L.O., Larson, H.J., Rabin, K., Ratzan, S.C., Kamarulzaman, A. and El-Mohandes, A., 2023. A survey of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance across 23 countries in 2022. Nature Medicine, pp.1-10.
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continued to mutate and spread in 2022 despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines and medications. Vaccine hesitancy remains substantial, fueled in part by misinformation. Our third study of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among 23,000 respondents in 23 countries (Brazil, Canada, China, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain ...
Agujiobi-Odoh, N., Joseph, I.V., Blessing, C.O., Amaechi, C., Muoh, O., Nwokolo, P. and Celestine, G.V., 2023. Rethinking the frontiers of vaccine acceptance: Impact of visual messages in promoting the actual intake of COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable populations. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, p.2163811.
Mbah, C., Iroka, O.R., Nwosu, C.P., Idowu, B.M., Nwankwo, F.M., Nwosu, I.A., Ololo, K. and Iwuala, H.O., 2023. Population and vaccine hesitancy: a demographic and Socio-behavioural examination of a barrier to Covid-19 herd immunity in Nigeria. Scientific African, 19, p.e01508.
Odeigah, L.O., Mutalub, Y.B., Agede, O.A., Obalowu, I.A., Aiyetoro, S. and Jimoh, G.A., 2022. Adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination in Kwara State, North-central Nigeria. PLOS Global Public Health2(8), p.e0000835.

Udoakang, A.J., Djomkam Zune, A.L., Tapela, K. et al. 2022. Knowledge, attitude and perception of West Africans towards COVID-19: a survey to inform public health intervention. BMC Public Health 22, 445

Kanma-Okafor, O., Odusolu, Y., Abayomi, A., Shuaib, F., Adeyeye, M., Mustapha, I., Ogboye, S., Lajide, D., Abdur-Razzaq, H., Okafor, U. and Elemuwa, U., 2022. A qualitative analysis of the COVID-19 vaccination rollout in Lagos, Nigeria: Client and provider perspectives on the plan, the process and the progress. PLOS Global Public Health2(11), p.e0000486.
Folayan, M.O., Arije, O., Enemo, A., Sunday, A., Muhammad, A., Nyako, H.Y., Abdullah, R.M., Okiwu, H. and Lamontagne, E., 2022. Associations between COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the experience of violence among women and girls living with and at risk of HIV in Nigeria. African journal of AIDS research21(4), pp.306-316.
LLawal, L., Aminu Bello, M., Murwira, T., Avoka, C., Yusuf Ma'aruf, S., Harrison Omonhinmin, I., Maluleke, P., Tsagkaris, C. and Onyeaka, H., 2022. Low coverage of COVID-19 vaccines in Africa: current evidence and the way forward. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 18(1), p.2034457. (Not OA)
Ifechi, O.C., Chinonye, E.E. and Chidozie, O., 2022. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Clinical Medical Students in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 33(4), pp.1879-1890. (Not OA)
Ogunbosi, B.O., Alao, M.A., Ibrahim, O.R., Ayuk, A.C., Ibraheem, R.M., Odimegwu, C.L., Ikwuka, D.C., Akintan, P., Morakinyo, O., Adeyemi, A.T. and Jega, R.M., 2022. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in six geopolitical zones in Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey. The Pan African Medical Journal, 42.

Patwary, M.M., Alam, M.A., Bardhan, M., Disha, A.S., Haque, M.Z., Billah, S.M., Kabir, M.P., Browning, M.H., Rahman, M.M., Parsa, A.D. and Kabir, R., 2022. COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among Low-and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Vaccines, 10(3), p.427.

Nnaemeka, V.C., Onwe, R.O., Ekwedike, A.L., Oyedele, O.E., Tsiterimam, T.S., Ochepo, O.E., Nwokoye, N.N. and Ike, A.C., 2022. Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among Healthcare Workers in Nigeria. Vaccines, 10(10), p.1645.

Marzo, R.R., Ahmad, A., Islam, M.S., Essar, M.Y., Heidler, P., King, I., Thiyagarajan, A., Jermsittiparsert, K., Songwathana, K., Younus, D.A. and El-Abasiri, R.A., 2022. Perceived COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, acceptance, and drivers of vaccination decision-making among the general adult population: A global survey of 20 countries. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 16(1), p.e0010103.

Ilikannu, S.O., Uwadia, O.M., Enyi, I., Idama, V.E., Adugo, C.C., Yusuf, C., Urhi, A., Ochuba, C., Akinade, O. and Alugba, G., 2022. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among Patients Attending the General Outpatient Clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria. Cureus, 14(9).
Chutiyami, M., Bello, U.M., Salihu, D., Kolo, M.A., Alsharari, A.F., Sabo, H., Bukar, M., Shehu, U., Adamu, H. and Alkali, H.I., 2022. Subjective Reasons for COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Sociodemographic Predictors of Vaccination in Nigeria: An Online Survey. COVID 2022, 2, 1329–1340.
Abba-Aji, M., Stuckler, D., Galea, S. and McKee, M., 2022. Ethnic/racial minorities’ and migrants’ access to COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review of barriers and facilitators. Journal of migration and health, p.100086.
Nomhwange, T., Wariri, O., Nkereuwem, E., Olanrewaju, S., Nwosu, N., Adamu, U., Danjuma, E., Onuaguluchi, N., Enegela, J., Nomhwange, E. and Baptiste, A.E.J., 2022. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy amongst healthcare workers: An assessment of its magnitude and determinants during the initial phase of national vaccine deployment in Nigeria. EClinicalMedicine, 50, p.101499.

Wonodi C, Obi-Jeff C, Adewumi F, Keluo-Udeke SC, Gur-Arie R, Krubiner C, Jaffe EF, Bamiduro T, Karron R, Faden R. Conspiracy theories and misinformation about COVID-19 in Nigeria: Implications for vaccine demand generation communications. Vaccine. 2022 Mar 18;40(13):2114-2121 (Not OA)

IIliyasu, Z., Kwaku, A.A., Umar, A.A., Tsiga-Ahmed, F., Nass, N.S., Abdullahi, H.M., Amole, T.G., Salihu, H.M. and Aliyu, M.H., 2022. Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability among Patients Living with HIV in Northern Nigeria: A Mixed Methods Study. Current HIV research, 20(1), pp.82-90. (Not OA)

Iliyasu Z, Umar AA, Abdullahi HM, Kwaku AA, Amole TG, Tsiga-Ahmed FI, Garba RM, Salihu HM, Aliyu MH. "They have produced a vaccine, but we doubt if COVID-19 exists": correlates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among adults in Kano, Nigeria. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.

IIlesanmi, O.S., Chirico, F., Afolabi, A.A. and Nucera, G., 2022. Coping with the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa: implications for an improved outbreak response Comment. FUTURE VIROLOGY, 17(4). (Not OA)

Harapan, H., Anwar, S., Yufika, A., Sharun, K., Gachabayov, M., Fahriani, M., Husnah, M., Raad, R., Abdalla, R.Y., Adam, R.Y. and Khiri, N.M., 2022. Vaccine hesitancy among communities in ten countries in Asia, Africa, and South America during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pathogens and Global Health, pp.1-8. (Not OA)

Eze, U.A., Ndoh, K.I., Ibisola, B.A., Onwuliri, C.D., Osiyemi, A., Ude, N., Chime, A.A., Ogbor, E.O., Alao, A.O. and Abdullahi, A., 2021. Determinants for Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccine in Nigeria. Cureus, 13(11). (Not OA)

Ekwebelem, O.C., Yunusa, I., Onyeaka, H., Ekwebelem, N.C. and Nnorom-Dike, O., 2021. COVID-19 vaccine rollout: will it affect the rates of vaccine hesitancy in Africa?. Public health. (Not OA)
Bhanu, C., Gopal, D.P., Walters, K. and Chaudhry, U.A., 2021. Vaccination uptake amongst older adults from minority ethnic backgrounds: A systematic review. PLoS medicine, 18(11), p.e1003826.

Ariyo, O.E., Oladipo, E.K., Osasona, O.G., Obe, O. and Olomojobi, F., 2021. COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination: how prepared is Africa?. The Pan African Medical Journal, 39.

Anjorin, A.A., Odetokun, I.A., Abioye, A.I., Elnadi, H., Umoren, M.V., Damaris, B.F., Eyedo, J., Umar, H.I., Nyandwi, J.B., Abdalla, M.M. and Tijani, S.O., 2021. Will Africans take COVID-19 vaccination?. PloS one, 16(12), p.e0260575.

Amuzie, C.I., Odini, F., Kalu, K.U., Izuka, M., Nwamoh, U., Emma-Ukaegbu, U. and Onyike, G., 2021. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers and its socio-demographic determinants in Abia State, Southeastern Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. The Pan African Medical Journal, 40.

Agha S, Chine A, Lalika M, Pandey S, Seth A, Wiyeh A, Seng A, Rao N, Badshah A. Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake amongst Healthcare Workers (HCWs) in Nigeria. Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Oct 11;9(10)

Afolabi AA, Ilesanmi OS. Addressing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: Lessons from the role of community participation in previous vaccination programs. Health Promotion Perspectives. 2021 Dec 19;11(4):434-437

Afolabi AA, Ilesanmi OS. Dealing with vaccine hesitancy in Africa: the prospective COVID-19 vaccine context. Pan African Medical Journal. 2021 Jan 5;38:3.

Adigwe OP. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and willingness to pay: Emergent factors from a cross-sectional study in Nigeria. Vaccine X. 2021 Dec;9:100112.

Adebisi YA, Alaran AJ, Bolarinwa OA, Akande-Sholabi W, Lucero-Prisno DE. When it is available, will we take it? Social media users' perception of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2021 Mar 2;38:230.

Iheanacho, C.O., Enechukwu, O.H. and AGUIYI-IKEANYI, C.N., 2021. Socio-demographic determinants of beliefs about COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Journal of Research in Pharmacy, pp.872-880. (Not OA)

Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Morgan, M.Y., Spearman, C.W., Suliman, A.A., Corrah, T., Oleribe, O.O. and Taylor-Robinson, A.W., 2022. Why SARS-CoV-2 vaccination still matters in Africa. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 115(3), pp.191-192. (Not OA)

Solís Arce, J.S., Warren, S.S., Meriggi, N.F., Scacco, A., McMurry, N., Voors, M., Syunyaev, G., Malik, A.A., Aboutajdine, S., Adeojo, O. and Anigo, D., 2021. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in low-and middle-income countries. Nature medicine, 27(8), pp.1385-1394. (Not OA)

Mustapha, M., Lawal, B.K., Sha’aban, A., Jatau, A.I., Wada, A.S., Bala, A.A., Mustapha, S., Haruna, A., Musa, A., Ahmad, M.H. and Iliyasu, S., 2021. Factors associated with acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among University health sciences students in Northwest Nigeria. PloS one, 16(11), p.e0260672.

Uzochukwu, I.C., Eleje, G.U., Nwankwo, C.H., Chukwuma, G.O., Uzuke, C.A., Uzochukwu, C.E., Mathias, B.A., Okunna, C.S., Asomugha, L.A. and Esimone, C.O., 2021. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among staff and students in a Nigerian tertiary educational institution. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease, 8, p.20499361211054923.

Suliman DM, Nawaz FA, Mohanan P, Modber MAKA, Musa MK, Musa MB, El Chbib D, Elhadi YAM, Essar MY, Isa MA, Lucero-Prisno DE 3rd, Moonesar IA. UAE efforts in promoting COVID-19 vaccination and building vaccine confidence. Vaccine. 2021 Oct 15 (Not OA)

Serwaa, D., Lamptey, E. and Senkyire, E.K., 2021. Increasing COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among the general population while maintaining autonomy. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(12), pp.5139-5141. (Not OA)

Reuben, R.C. and Adogo, L.Y., 2021. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines–induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia: should we consider immuno- hypersensitivity?. Revista de saude publica, 55, p.70.

Otu, A., Osifo-Dawodu, E., Atuhebwe, P., Agogo, E. and Ebenso, B., 2021. Beyond vaccine hesitancy: time for Africa to expand vaccine manufacturing capacity amidst growing COVID-19 vaccine nationalism. The Lancet Microbe, 2(8), pp.e347-e348.

Noushad, M., Rastam, S., Nassani, M.Z., Al-Saqqaf, I.S., Hussain, M., Yaroko, A.A., Arshad, M., Kirfi, A.M., Koppolu, P., Niazi, F.H. and Elkandow, A., 2021. A Global Survey of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Among Healthcare Workers. Frontiers in public health, 9.

Lucero-Prisno, D.E., Ogunkola, I.O., Esu, E.B., Adebisi, Y.A., Lin, X. and Li, H., 2021. Can Africa achieve herd immunity?. Global Health Research and Policy, 6(1), pp.1-6.

Lamptey, E., 2021. Should Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Infection Affect Our Confidence in the COVID-19 Vaccines?. Infection & Chemotherapy, 53(4), p.676.(Not OA)

Kanyanda S, Markhof Y, Wollburg P, Zezza A. Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from six national phone surveys. BMJ Open. 2021 Dec 15;11(12):e055159. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055159. PMID: 34911723; PMCID: PMC8678558.

Iliyasu, Z., Garba, M.R., Gajida, A.U., Amole, T.G., Umar, A.A., Abdullahi, H.M., Kwaku, A.A., Salihu, H.M. and Aliyu, M.H., 2021. ‘Why Should I Take the COVID-19 Vaccine after Recovering from the Disease?’A Mixed-methods Study of Correlates of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability among Health Workers in Northern Nigeria. Pathogens and Global Health, pp.1-9.. (Not OA)



Web of Science

Oyekale, A.S., 2022. Factors Influencing Willingness to Be Vaccinated against COVID-19 in Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(11), p.6816.

Google Scholar

Sallam, M., Al-Sanafi, M. and Sallam, M., 2022. A global map of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates per country: an updated concise narrative review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 15, p.21.
Eregie, U.J. and Adebayo, E.T., 2021. Covid-19 Vaccine Acceptance Among Health-care Workers in a Nigerian Population. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences, 28(4), pp.13-19. (Not OA)


Iloh, G.U. and Chukwuonye, M.E., 2022. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in a Medically-Challenged Context: A Cross-Sectional Study of Drivers, Dangers and Corrective Measures for Vaccine Hesitancy and Potential Penalties for Declining Vaccination among Adults in South-Eastern Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine, 39(9), pp.889-895. (Not OA)
Abstract: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a global public health problem. It is a complex and context-specific phenomenon that varies within and across nations. Despite COVID-19 vaccine programmes in Nigeria, there are possibilities that vaccine uptake and coverage among adult citizens will suffer setbacks amidst various interventions by the Federal Government of Nigeria.
Limaye, R.J., Balgobin, K., Michel, A., Schulz, G. and Erchick, D.J., 2022. What message appeal and messenger are most persuasive for COVID-19 vaccine uptake: Results from a 5-country survey in India, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, and Ukraine. PloS one, 17(9), p.e0274966.

Chukwu, O.A., Kapiriri, L. and Essue, B., 2022. Supporting the pandemic response and timely access to COVID-19 vaccines: a case for stronger priority setting and health system governance in Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice.(Not OA)

Abstract: Priority setting and health system governance are critical for optimising healthcare interventions and determining how best to allocate limited resources. The COVID-19 pandemic has buttressed the need for these especially now that vaccines are available to curb the spread of the disease. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), vaccine coverage remains low, due in large part to sub-optimal priority setting and health system governance which has led to inequities in access and has fuelled vaccine hesitancy. An analysis of the situation in Nigeria identified key issues that have affected the health system response to COVID-19 and impeded timely access to the vaccine. These include weak vaccine procurement strategies, limited evidence on strategies for prioritising recipients and approaches for rolling out mass vaccination programmes for the entire population, lack of a communication strategy to reduce the incidence of vaccine hesitancy and failures to proactively address vaccine hesitancy through the implementation of vaccination programmes. Nigeria and other many other LMICs are still facing the prospect of subsequent and potentially worsening waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.

WHO Africa

WHO Africa. May 2021. “We will never relent” - Argungu Emir vows to ensure COVID-19 vaccination in emirate amid hesitancy (Nigeria).